Department of Defense
High Performance Computing Modernization Program

Scope of article

This article focuses on the physical and (on a software-defined network) virtual network nodes (like routers, switches, and gateways) that perform or enable the exchange of data between and among wide-area networks (WANs) using the Internet Protocol Suite, rather than those network nodes that initiate data exchanges (like computers, smart phones, and sensors).

Almost all unclassified WANs are interconnected via the Internet which has been continuously expanding in size since the standardization of the Internet Protocol Suite in 1982. The functionality of the Internet has also been expanding. Examples of functionality expansion include:

  1. The World Wide Web (WWW) began appearing on the Internet around 1991.
  2. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) began appearing on the Internet beginning in 1998. 
  3. The Internet of Things (IoT) began appearing on the Internet around 2003.
  4. Precursors to the Industrial IoT (IIoT) began appearing in 1982 under various names. The IIoT (also known as Industry 4.0) began appearing on the Internet in 2006. (More than you probably will ever want to know about terms related to IoT and IIoT can be found in this A-to-Z Guide To the Internet of Things.)

While the WWW, IPv6, IoT, and IIoT have all significantly expanded the capabilities of the Internet, only IPv6 has significantly changed the process of deploying WANs.

IPv6 WAN Deployment

A network address plan is an essential element in any WAN deployment. See the IPv6 Address Plans article in the Network Management section for more information about IPv6 Address Plans.

This presentation considers a wide array of topics associated with deploying IPv6 on a WAN. It was presented at the 2013 Asia Pacific Regional Internet Conference on Operational Technologies (APRICOT). This presentation describes some of the transit and peering issues involved in IPv6 enabling a backbone network. For additional information about IPv6 enabling a backbone network, this presentation entitled Deploying a Production IPv6 Network in 30 Minutes or Less (or its free) was presented at the 46th North American Network Operators’ Group (NANOG46). Since 1998 and continuing to the present, the NANOG has presented reports and in-depth tutorials on a variety of IPv6 deployment topics.

This dive into IPv6 implementation presentation may provide more than you wanted to know about IPv6 enabling your network. It was presented at the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) XXII meeting in 2009. Google maintains its own in-depth IPv6 Knowledge Base specific to IPv6 network design, configuration, and deployment.

Best Current Operational Practices (BCOP) are available for:

General peering and transit configurations
Public peering exchange point configurations
External and internal border gateway configurations.

This presentation discusses Segment Routing over non-MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks with IPv6 in a Cisco environment, this presentation discusses it in a Juniper environment, and this presentation discusses it in a Linux environment. Information about IPv6 MPLS network deployments using:

6-Provider Edge (6PE) is in this presentation and this later presentation, and
Border Gateway Protocol-4 (BGP) along with RIPng, EIGRPv6, IS-ISv6, and OSPFv3 is in this presentation and this later presentation.

Finally, check the Before you Begin article in the Deployment section of the IPv6 Knowledge Base for material from 5G Americas, Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS), and Cisco.